The general mob-led violence against Black people actually began before the summer in localized incidents.
In the book "Red Summer: The Summer of 1919 and the Awakening of Black America, " author Cameron McWhirter described what led up to a deadly riot in Jenkins County, Georgia, in April, when Black churches were burned and Black men killed.
It was just the start: "In coming months, similar horrors would afflict cities and towns across America. The violence that April Sunday was only the beginning of what would become known as the Red Summer of 1919, when riots and lynchings spread throughout the country, causing havoc and harming thousands — yet also awakening millions of blacks to fight for rights guaranteed them, but so long denied. "James Weldon Johnson, an NAACP leader who organized peaceful protests that year, began using the term Red Summer to describe the bloodshed.
It was during the summer months when the violent assaults began spiraling in major cities like Philadelphia, Washington, New York and Chicago, places where African Americans were migrating to in large numbers for opportunities that didn't exist in the South. At the time, however, race relations only deteriorated under President Woodrow Wilson, who supported racist and segregationist policies in the federal government.
Ward said that white people were responding to the "ever-present white fear of a loss of social status and dominance" and were "resentful of this disruption of social, economic and political order. ".
.smokingusacigarettes.com]Online Cigarettes Store USA[/url]